Assessment of Spare part Sourcing and Recycling Activities Impact on the Availability of Lead, Cadmium and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Evbareke Spare Parts Market Soil in Benin City, Nigeria

  • Okponmwense Moses University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Ukeme Donatus Archibong
Keywords: Contamination, Geochemical, Assessment, sourcing and Dismantling, Automobile.


Recycling of spare parts obtained from dismantled unserviceable automobiles may be economical, however, it contributes to environmental degradation. The research was aimed at assessing the soil contamination intensity at Evbareke spare parts market automobile disassembling site. soil sample collection was separately pull together from top soil (0-20 cm) at automobile disassembling location and Evbareke senior secondary school serving as a reference/control site, using grid sampling method. The soil contamination level assessment index used include: relative pollution potential of the metals (RPP), single pollution index (SPI), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), average pollution index (API), total soil contamination index (TSCI) and pollution load index (PLI). The assessment was done with reference to data obtained from the control site soil as geochemical background value (CB). The contaminated soil particle size was categorized as loamy sand with coarse texture. The contaminated site soil had high total organic carbon content (TOC) due to high value of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (107,304.59 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium content in the geochemical fractionation of contaminated soil was more than that in reference site soil, due to human influenced contamination. RPP value revealed that the soil was contaminated at the impact point with lead and cadmium. The soil from the contaminated site soil was excessively contaminated with lead (37.11) and slightly contaminated with cadmium (1.57) based on SPI assessment. Igeo showed that the contaminated site soil was strongly contaminated with lead (3.21) and lightly contaminated with cadmium (0.05). The API assessment indicated that the soil was very highly contaminated by lead and cadmium (19.37). TSCI and PLI assessment showed that the contamination degree of the contaminated soil with lead and cadmium (38.68 and 13.98 respectively) was very high and the contaminant deteriorated the site. The impact of their activities has immensely contributed to lead, cadmium ions and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in Evbareke spare parts market vehicle dismantling site soil.


Adedosu, H.O., Adewuyi, G.O. and Adie G.U. (2013). ‘Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil,
Leachate and Underground Water Samples Collected from the Vicinity of Olusosun Landfill in
Ojota, Lagos, Nigeria’. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology. 3(6): 73-86.
Addis W. and Abebaw A. (2017): Determination of heavy metal concentration in soils used for
cultivation of Allium sativum L. (garlic) in East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Afolayan A. O. (2018): Accumulation of Heavy Metals from Battery Waste in Topsoil, Surface
Water, and Garden Grown Maize at Omilende Area, Olodo, Nigeria. Global Challenges, 2,
1700090, pp 1-12
Anapuwa O. S. (2014): Heavy Metal Contamination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Soils
from Automobile Workshops in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Natural
Sciences Research, 2(4): 48-58.

Bakshi S., Banik C. and He Z. (2018): “The impact of heavy metal contamination on soil health”.
Reicosky D. (ed.), Managing soil health for sustainable agriculture Volume 2: Monitoring and
management. Burleigh Dodds Series in Agricultural Science, pp 1-33

Bello S., Zakari Y. I, Ibeanu I.G.E and Muhammad B.G (2016): Characterization and assessment of
heavy metal pollution levels in soils of Dana steel limited dumpsite, Katsina state, Nigeria
using geo-accumulation, ecological risk and hazard indices. American Journal of Engineering
Research (AJER), 5(1) pp-49-61.

Cai, C., Xiong, B., Zhang, Y., Li, X. and Nunes, L. M. (2015). ‘Critical Comparison of Soil
Pollution Indices for Assessing Contamination with Toxic Metals’. Water Air Soil Pollut. 226:

Chonokhuu S., Batbold C., Chuluunpurev B., Battsenge E., Dorjsuren B. and Byambaa B. (2019):
Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Soil of Major Cities in
Mongolia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16, 2552.

Darko G., Dodd M., Nkansah M. A., Aduse-Poku Y., Ansah E., Wemegah D. D., and Borquaye L. S.
(2017): Distribution and ecological risks of toxic metals in the topsoils in the Kumasi
metropolis, Ghana. Cogent Environmental Science, 3: 1354965.

Flynn, R. (2015). Interpreting Soil tests: Unlock the Secrets of Your Soil. New Mexico State
University. Cooperative Extension Service. College of Agricultural, Consumer and
Environmental Science. Las Cruces, New Mexico. pp 1-12

Gushit J. S., Osabo O. K., Olasunkanmi A. M. (2018): Mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in
soils obtained from open-air automobile repair shop in Jos North LGA, plateau state, Nigeria. J
Anal Pharm Res. 7(5):548‒551.

Google (n.d). Map showing evbareke spare parts market and evbareke senior secondary school Benin
City. Retrieved from,5.6121851,17z

Hanlon, E. A. (2012): Soil pH and Electrical Conductivity: A county Extension Soil Laboratory
Manual. CIR1081. Soil and Water Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension
Services, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Hazelton, P., and Murphy, B.(2007). ‘Interpreting Soil Test Results’. CSIRO. 166. Australia Society
of Soil Science. Inc.

Kowalska J. B., Mazurek R., Siorek M. G. and T. Zaleski (2018): Pollution indices as useful tools
for the comprehensive evaluation of the degree of soil contamination–A review. Environ
Geochem Health 40:2395–2420

Li, X. and Thornton, L. (2001). ‘Chemical Portioning of Trace and Major Elements in Soil
Contaminated by Mining and Smelting Activities’. Appl Geochm., 16: 1693-1706.

Meng Q. (2017): Research on Effects of Heavy Metals on Agricultural Soil Pollution and its Control.
Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 59, 955-960.

Menkiti N. D., Oyeyiola A. O. And Olayinka K. O. (2017): Ecological Risk Assessment of Potentially
Toxic Metals in Soils Around Used Automobile Parts And Mechanic Workshops In Lagos
State, Nigeria. FUW Trends In Science & Technology Journal, Vol. 2(1a) Pp 158 - 164 .

Moses O. and Obasigie M. O. (2020): Assessment of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil Due to Motor
Vehicle Dismantling Activities in Uwelu Spare Parts Market, Egor L.G.A., Edo State Nigeria.
Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (DUJOPAS), Vol. 6 (2) pp. 130-140.

NESREA, (2009). Nigeria national Environmental Standard and Regulations Enforcement Agency.
Federal Republic of Nigeria.

North Central Region-13, (1998). Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North
Central region. NCR-13. Illinois.

Proshad R., Islam M. S., Kormoker T., Bhuyan M. S., Hanif M. A., Hossain N., Roy R. and Sharma
A. C. (2019): Contamination of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils: Ecological and Health
Risk Assessment. SF J Nanochem Nanotechnol. 2019; 2(1): 1012.

Ololade I. A. (2014): An Assessment of Heavy-Metal Contamination in Soils within Auto-Mechanic
Workshops Using Enrichment and Contamination Factors with Geoaccumulation Indexes.
Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 970-982

Rabe J. M., Agbaji E.B., Zakka Y., Muhammed H. M. and Rabe A. M. (2018): Assessment of
Contaminated Soil with Some Heavy Metals in Selected Auto Repair Shops in Katsina North
Western, Nigeria Open Access Journal of Waste Management & Xenobiotics. Volume 1 Issue

Sarkar S. K., Favas P.J.C., Rakshit D. and Satpathy K.K. (2014): Geochemical Speciation and Risk
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments. IntechOpen, 723-757.

Su C., Jiang L. Q. and Zhang W. J. (2014): A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil
worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques. Environmental Skeptics and
Critics, 2014, 3(2): 24-38.

Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G.C. and Bisson, M. (1979). ‘Sequential Extraction Procedure for
Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals’. Anal. Chem., 51: 844–851.

Topcuoglu, B. (2016). ‘Heavy Metal Mobility and Bioavailabilityon Soil Pollution and
Environmental Risks in Greenhouse Area’. International Journal of Advances in Agricultural
and Environmental Eng. (IJAAEE). Vol. 3(1): 208 - 213.

Topcuoğlu B. (2017): A Comprehensive Evaluation of Environmental Pollution Characteristics of the
Greenhouse Soils (A Case Study in Kaş-Antalya). Universal Journal of Chemistry 5(1): 6-18

Uzoije, A. P. and Nwigwe, C. (2018). ‘Applications of Soil Pollution and Statistical Models on the
Assessment and Distributions of the Heavy Metals on the Typical Paint Manufacturing
Waste Contaminated Soil of Niger Delta Nigeria’. International Journal of Environmental
Sciences & Natural Resources. 13(5).

Weissmannová, H. D. and Pavlovský, J. (2017) ‘Indices of soil contamination by heavy metals –
methodology of calculation for pollution assessment (minireview)’. Environ Monit Assess
How to Cite
Moses, O., & Archibong, U. (2022). Assessment of Spare part Sourcing and Recycling Activities Impact on the Availability of Lead, Cadmium and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Evbareke Spare Parts Market Soil in Benin City, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development, 9(2), 37-45.