Assessment of Spare part Sourcing and Recycling Activities Impact on the Availability of Lead, Cadmium and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Evbareke Spare Parts Market Soil in Benin City, Nigeria
Recycling of spare parts obtained from dismantled unserviceable automobiles may be economical, however, it contributes to environmental degradation. The research was aimed at assessing the soil contamination intensity at Evbareke spare parts market automobile disassembling site. soil sample collection was separately pull together from top soil (0-20 cm) at automobile disassembling location and Evbareke senior secondary school serving as a reference/control site, using grid sampling method. The soil contamination level assessment index used include: relative pollution potential of the metals (RPP), single pollution index (SPI), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), average pollution index (API), total soil contamination index (TSCI) and pollution load index (PLI). The assessment was done with reference to data obtained from the control site soil as geochemical background value (CB). The contaminated soil particle size was categorized as loamy sand with coarse texture. The contaminated site soil had high total organic carbon content (TOC) due to high value of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (107,304.59 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium content in the geochemical fractionation of contaminated soil was more than that in reference site soil, due to human influenced contamination. RPP value revealed that the soil was contaminated at the impact point with lead and cadmium. The soil from the contaminated site soil was excessively contaminated with lead (37.11) and slightly contaminated with cadmium (1.57) based on SPI assessment. Igeo showed that the contaminated site soil was strongly contaminated with lead (3.21) and lightly contaminated with cadmium (0.05). The API assessment indicated that the soil was very highly contaminated by lead and cadmium (19.37). TSCI and PLI assessment showed that the contamination degree of the contaminated soil with lead and cadmium (38.68 and 13.98 respectively) was very high and the contaminant deteriorated the site. The impact of their activities has immensely contributed to lead, cadmium ions and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in Evbareke spare parts market vehicle dismantling site soil.
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